Inside one of the world's great pilgrimages, invited to experience Arbaeen, a vicar ponders its perpetual lament Indian Magazine Applauds the Poetic Genius of a Kashmiri Bard Revering Karbala's Essence! Facilitating Arbaeen Pilgrimage: Pakistan Proposes Free Visas for Karbala-bound Travelers Are the Narrations of Karbala Reliable? A conversation with a Japanese clerk Sheikh Ibrahim Swada Interview with an American Orientalist Unity in Faith: Iraq and Pakistan Set the Stage for Pilgrim-Friendly Policies in Karbala and Najaf Pictures: Museum of the Holy Shrine of Imam Hussein How Iraqi people became the best hosts in history? - Part II How Iraqi people became the best hosts in history - Part I The center holds a seminar On the unseen dimensions of the personality of Imam Hussein, peace be upon him (Part One) Mr. Abdul Amir Al-Quraishi receives the delegation of the Iranian Arbaeen Committee From the sea to Al-Hussein sacred slaughter place Roofing the streets of the old city (views) A delegation from Karbala Center for Studies and Research visits the Media Department at Al-Hussaini Holy Shrine Karbala: Tarateel Sajjadiyya Festival With Pictures … Arbaeen pilgrims walking from the southernmost point of Iraq Publication of the eleventh issue of (The Week) newsletter Karbala theater produced by history and represented by reality (scenes) The committees of the International Conference for the Arbaeen visitation hold their session in preparation for the conference
KCSR'S Projects / Ziyarat AL-arba'een
02:23 PM | 2021-07-03 1052
جانب من تشيع الشهيد زكي غنام
تحميل الصورة

Arbaeen in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic

Lara Hamdanieh, PhD and Abbas Ostadtaghizadeh, PhD


The Arbaeen pilgrimage is an Islamic mass gathering (MG) that takes place in Iraq. It is estimated that 17 to 20 million people from different countries participate in this annual procession. Pilgrims walk for days from several Iraqi cities to reach Karbala on the day of Arbaeen. Different voluntary services, such as accommodation, food, and health, are provided to the pilgrims during the MG.1


Infectious diseases are the most common health threat with MGs.1 During Arbaeen, controlling infectious diseases is so challenging due to the high population density, non-resilient health infrastructure, limited control of infectious diseases, low participant perception about health risk factors, and ineffective health education. Also, in the absence of food safety supervision, gastrointestinal infections could occur.2 The Arbaeen MG can be a hub with the potential to disseminate the new coronavirus and exacerbate the scope of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This MG and its associated impacts are a serious health threat, and ignoring this issue can lead to unprecedented health consequences. Whether or not the authorities decide to cancel Arbaeen, it is expected that many people from Iraq and other countries will participate in this religious ceremony during September to October 2020. Due to the spiritual purpose of the walk, some pilgrims might believe that there is low health risks in this MG and they won’t follow the protective measures.


Therefore, national and international organizations should consider COVID-19 prevention and control measures during MGs a top priority on their agenda. This includes conducting a risk assessment,3 developing an emergency operations plan, and ensuring effective risk communication.



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