Pictures: Museum of the Holy Shrine of Imam Hussein How Iraqi people became the best hosts in history? - Part II How Iraqi people became the best hosts in history - Part I The center holds a seminar On the unseen dimensions of the personality of Imam Hussein, peace be upon him (Part One) Mr. Abdul Amir Al-Quraishi receives the delegation of the Iranian Arbaeen Committee From the sea to Al-Hussein sacred slaughter place Roofing the streets of the old city (views) A delegation from Karbala Center for Studies and Research visits the Media Department at Al-Hussaini Holy Shrine Karbala: Tarateel Sajjadiyya Festival With Pictures … Arbaeen pilgrims walking from the southernmost point of Iraq Publication of the eleventh issue of (The Week) newsletter Karbala theater produced by history and represented by reality (scenes) The committees of the International Conference for the Arbaeen visitation hold their session in preparation for the conference A meeting on ideological linguistic vocabulary The incident of Karbala Ashura: History & Philosophy Tell me about Ashura The dark night of loneliness ( the Night of Wahsha) is a witness to the tragedy of Karbala..and only candles illuminate the night of loneliness ?Ashura is the largest annual pilgrimage in the world. So what does it commemorate Rituals Immortalized Imam Hussein’s Battle of Karbala
Karbala's Atlas / Urban Stages
10:33 AM | 2021-11-25 1292
جانب من تشيع الشهيد زكي غنام
تحميل الصورة

The Impact of Urban Structure Changes on the Airflow Speed Circulation in Historic Karbala, Iraq

Dhirgham Alobaydi, Haider Mohamed, H. Attya


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This study investigates a dynamic airflow circulation in the urban historic structures of Karbala, which is one of the typical examples of historic nuclei in Iraq as well as the Middle Eastern region.


The mechanism of the natural urban ventilation system of the city is continuously facing forces of change for different reasons, such as socioeconomic, political, and environmental. These changes in the city form included but not limited to: large parts of urban historic structures have been removed and new concrete structures and modern streets, that have different geometry, dimensions, and materials, have been added.


Such changes affect the pattern of street networks and the mass-void proportions in the old urban structures, which were built in efficiency providing ventilation and cooling naturally, and could have a great impact on the speed and behavior of the airflow circulation. For the analysis purposes, two phases, which are remarkable in forming the old structure of Karbala have been selected and digitized. These phases include the organic urban structures before the initial acts of road building at the beginning of the previous century.


The study area was strictly defined to represent a traditional environment that relied on using a natural ventilation system. Four simulation models of the study area have been created for the aforementioned phases. The first set has shown the airflow speed, while the second set has presented LMA, i.e. the local mean age. The simulation process was supported by surveyed and historic meteorological data. Results show that the changes of old urban structures affect the airflow circulation speed significantly, but more importantly, these results offer a useful source for contemporary urban planning, using comprehensive plans, in historic nuclei with similar characteristics to Karbala in both local and regional areas. One significant limitation of this study, however, is that it has not involved single urban blocks or residential units in the analysis.

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